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Issue:ISSN 1000-7083
          CN 51-1193/Q
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Your Position :Home->Past Journals Catalog->2021 Vol.40 No.4

Redescription of Phoroncidia crustula Zhu, 1998 with First Record of Male (Araneae: Theridiidae)
Author of the article:LIN Zixuan*
Author's Workplace:Middlefield Collegiate Institute, ON L3S 3L5, Canada
Key Words:Araneae; Theridiidae; Phoroncidia; taxonomy; China
Abstract:Phoroncidia crustula Zhu, 1998, previously known from the only female holotype, is redescribed based on new materials from the type locality in this study. The male is described for the first time. Photos of the body and copulatory organs are provided. The web construction and predatory behavior of this species are briefly described from its natural habitat. Specimens examined are deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IZCAS).
Phoroncidia crustula Zhu, 1998
Phoroncidia crustula Zhu, 1998:29, figs. 12A-D.
Phoroncidia crustula Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999:127, figs. 66C-D.
Material examined: 2 (IZCAS-Ar41826-Ar41827), 1♀ (IZCAS-Ar41828), Mingfeng Valley, Jianfengling Mountains, Ledong County, Hainan Province, China, 108.845 8°E, 18.743 2°N, elevation 1 022 m, July 17, 2020, Zixuan Lin leg. 1♀ (IZCAS-Ar41829), Jianfengling Mountains, Ledong County, Hainan Province, China, 108.882 1°E, 18.677 8°N, elevation 618 m, July 13, 2020, Zixuan Lin and Yunhu Mo leg. 3♀ (IZCAS-Ar41830-Ar41832), Mingfeng Valley, Jianfengling Mountains, Ledong County, Hainan Province, China, 108.846 6°E, 18.741 2°N, elevation 1 000 m, July 30, 2020, Zixuan Lin leg.
Diagnosis: P. crustula closely resembles P. ryukyuensis, having the following characteristics in common:the oval abdomen has a median dorsal hump on the anterior margin; female has carapace tubercles on the sides; the spermathecae are two separated spheres. However, it differs in the following aspects:1) P. crustula has a relatively gentle abdominal dorsal hump that is less pronounced; 2) the ventral theridioid tegular apophysis of P. crustula has a lobe behind the ridged board, P. ryukyuensis lacks this characteristic; 3) the embolic base of P. crustula has a lobe laterally, while P. ryukyuensis's embolic base without lobe; 4) in female of P. crustula, the diameter of the copulatory duct is approximately five times of the separation distance between the spermathecae, whereas in P. ryukyuensis, the spermathecae is separated by a distance almost equal to the diameter of the copulatory duct; 5) P. crustula has a more twisted copulatory duct trajectory than that of P. ryukyuensis, which forms an extra loop located directly below the spermathecae.
Male palp: Tibia bowl-shaped. Cymbium tapering distally, the apical part lightly incised. Paracymbium hooked, tip sharp, pointing upwards. Conductor membranous; sclerotized base of conductor fusing with tegulum, about one third of the entire conductor length. Embolic base with a finger-like sclerite below the base of conductor; embolus spiral long and filiform. The prolateral process of median apophysis flattened, mesally rounded; the distal part of median apophysis with a dorsal hood. Theridioid tegular apophysis consist of two flexibly attached sclerites; prolateral theridioid tegular apophysis pointing diagonally upward to the distal part of cymbium and with a sub-apophysis; ventral theridioid tegular apophysis ridged and with a lobe behind.
Epigynum: Epigynal plate highly sclerotized, with a bar-shaped sclerite lying between two eye-shaped sclerotized spots. Copulatory orifices narrow. Copulatory ducts long and twisted, entering spermathecae basally. Spermathecae are close to each other, ovoid in shape. Fertilization ducts short and hooked, curving mesally.
2021,40(4): 431-437 收稿日期:2020-10-28
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