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四川王朗国家级自然保护区红喉雉鹑的日活动节律及种群密度
Daily Activity Pattern and Population Density of Tetraophasis obscurus in the Wanglang National Nature Reserve, Sichuan
曹亚珍1, 赵联军2, 张塔星1, 王灿1, 郑勇2, 许路1, 冉江洪1*
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DOI:10.11984/j.issn.1000-7083.20210409
作者单位:1.四川大学生命科学学院,生物资源与生态环境教育部重点实验室,成都 610065
2.四川王朗国家级自然保护区管理局,四川平武 622550
中文关键字:红喉雉鹑;日活动节律;种群密度;雉类;红外相机
英文关键字:daily activity pattern;population density;pheasant;camera?trapping;
中文摘要:红喉雉鹑Tetraophasis obscurus是我国特有高山雉类,国家一级重点保护野生动物。为了解其生活习性及种群参数,2020—2021年在四川王朗国家级自然保护区采用红外相机技术、样线法和样点法对红喉雉鹑的日活动节律及其种群密度进行了调查。红喉雉鹑在保护区分布海拔为2 773~3 777 m,主要活动在3 200~3 400 m,常见于针叶林和针阔混交林,未在草甸生境中记录到;核密度函数绘制的日活动节律曲线表明,红喉雉鹑为昼行性动物,全年日活动曲线整体呈单峰模式,日活动强度在06∶00后快速升高,在08∶00—10∶00达到最高,之后快速降低至12∶00,其后缓慢下降,20∶00趋近于无;繁殖季和非繁殖季的日活动节律均呈双峰模式,但差异不显著(Δ=0.79),均以早晨最为活跃,非繁殖季比繁殖季的活动高峰推迟1~2 h;红外相机拍摄的群体平均大小为2.63只/群,样线调查的为3只/群,样线法和样点法估算的种群密度分别为7.60只/km2和5.42~6.18只/km2。本研究丰富了红喉雉鹑的野外生态学资料,为其保护管理和种群监测、评估提供了依据。
英文摘要:Chestnut‑throated partridge (Tetraophasis obscurus) is a class Ⅰ nationally key protected wild species endemic to China. The living habits and population parameters of this species are rarely studied. From 2020 to 2021, by combinedly using the camera‑trapping, line transect and point counting method, the daily activity pattern and population density of T. obscurus were investigated in the Wanglang National Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province. The results showed that T. obscurus distribution ranges from 2 773‒3 777 m in altitude, and the main active sites are in 3 200‒3 400 m. The species prefers to inhabit the coniferous forest, and mixed broadleaf⁃conifer forest, while no individuals are encountered in the meadow habitat. T. obscurus is diurnal‑active according to the graph of daily activity pattern plotted by Kernel density estimation and integrating data of a year. The activity pattern of T. obscurus showed single‑peak curve, and the activity intensity raised steeply after 06∶00, reaching the peak at 08∶00‒10∶00 and then dropped fast till 12∶00, declined gradually since and almost stopped at 20∶00. T. obscurus is most active in the morning in breeding and non‑breeding seasons, and showed bimodal daily activity patterns with no significant difference (Δ=0.79). The peak of activity curve of non‑breeding season was delayed by 1‒2 hours compared to that in breeding season. The average group size estimated by infrared camera detections is 2.63 individuals per flock, and 3 individuals per flock when analyzing the line transect survey records. Using line transect method or point counting method, the population density is estimated to be 7.60 individuals/km2 and 5.42‒6.18 individuals/km2, respectively. This study enriches the field ecology data of T. obscurus, provides scientific bases for the conservation management, population monitoring and status evaluation of the species.
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