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同域分布的绿孔雀与白鹇时空生态位分化
Spatio-Temporal Niche Differentiation of Sympatric Green Peafowl (Pavo muticus) and Silver Pheasant (Lophura nycthemera)
晏鸣霄1,2*, 孙楠3, 顾伯健4, 贺如川1,2, 刘瑛1,2
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DOI:10.11984/j.issn.1000-7083.20200418
作者单位:1. 中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园, 云南西双版纳 666303;
2. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;
3. 郑州大学生命科学学院生物多样性研究所, 郑州 450001;
4. 复旦大学生命科学学院, 上海 200433
中文关键字:绿孔雀;白鹇;同域分布;生态位分化;日活动节律
英文关键字:Pavo muticus; Lophura nycthemera; sympatric distribution; niche differentiation; daily activity rhythm
中文摘要:生态位分化是同域分布的潜在竞争物种长期稳定共存的基础。研究对比一个物种与其同域分布的潜在竞争者的生态位分化,可用于指导多物种保护工作的实践。2018年6月—2019年5月利用红外相机技术对云南省玉溪市新平和峨山交界处同域分布的绿孔雀Pavo muticus和白鹇Lophura nycthemera进行野外调查,使用Wilcoxon秩和检验和非参数核密度分析旱季和雨季对植被、海拔的利用情况和日活动节律进行比较。结果表明,该地区同域分布6种雉类中,绿孔雀和白鹇的RAI指数最高(分别为0. 73和0. 56),为优势物种。绿孔雀活动的平均海拔高于白鹇(1 486 m±75. 2 m vs. 1 390 m±71. 9 m;w=8 122. 5,P<0. 001),且海拔生态位宽度更宽。绿孔雀对4种植被类型利用较为平均,而白鹇则倾向于利用半湿润常绿阔叶林(旱季利用率93. 00%,雨季利用率77. 27%)。绿孔雀的日活动节律为正常的晨昏双峰模式,白鹇却呈现出与其他研究结果不同的单峰模式,且与绿孔雀差异明显。二者在不同生态位维度上的分化可能是种间竞争的结果。建议将该地区划为以绿孔雀为主的重点雉类保护区域,未来开展更多关于野生绿孔雀的基础生态学研究。
英文摘要:Niche differentiation is the basis of long-term stable coexistence of potentially competing species in sympatry. The study of niche differentiation between potential competitors in sympatry can be used to guide conservation practices. From June 2018 to May 2019, camera-traps were conducted for investigating the sympatric green peafowl (Pavo muticus) and silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera) around the boundary of Xinping and E'shan County in Yuxi City, Yunnan Province. Wilcoxon test and kernel density estimation were used to analyze the utilization of altitude, vegetation and daily activity rhythm of the two species in dry and rainy seasons. The results showed that P. muticus and L. nycthemera were the dominant pheasants, with the highest RAI index (0.73 and 0.56, respectively) among 6 species of pheasants distributed in this area. P. muticus distributed more widely and significantly higher than that of L. nycthemera in elevation (1 486 m±75.2 m[JP2]vs. 1 390 m±71.9 m; w=8 122.5, P < 0.001). The 4 vegetation types were utilized relatively even by P. muticus, while L. nycthemera was found to prefer the evergreen broad-leaved forest (93.00% in dry season and 77.27% in rainy season). The daily activity rhythm of P. muticus was the normal mode with morning and dusk peaks. By contrast, L. nycthemera presented a single peak pattern, which is different from other studies, and significantly different from that of P. muticus. Their niche differentiation might be caused by the interspecific competition. It is suggested to protect this area for local pheasants, especially for P. muticus as the key species. More basic ecological research on wild P. muticus are needed in the future.
2021,40(2): 150-159 收稿日期:2020-11-02
分类号:Q959.7
作者简介:晏鸣霄(1994-),硕士研究生,研究方向:生态学,E-mail:yanmingxiao19@gmail.com
*通信作者:晏鸣霄,E-mail:yanmingxiao19@gmail.com
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