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不同类型道路对卡拉麦里山有蹄类野生动物自然保护区大沙鼠分布的影响
Effects of Road Type on the Distribution of Great Gerbil in the Kalamaili Mountain Ungulate Nature Reserve, China
汪沐阳1,2, 吉晟男3*, 邵长亮4, 徐文轩1,2, 陈晨1,2,5, 杨维康1,2*
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DOI:10.11984/j.issn.1000-7083.20200316
作者单位:1. 荒漠与绿洲生态国家重点实验室, 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所, 乌鲁木齐 830011;
2. 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所木垒野生动物生态监测实验站, 木垒, 新疆维吾尔自治区 831900;
3. 中国环境科学研究院, 北京 100012;
4. 新疆卡拉麦里山有蹄类野生动物自然保护区管理中心, 乌鲁木齐 830000;
5. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
中文关键字:大沙鼠;准噶尔荒漠;道路网络;生境
英文关键字:Rhombomys opimus; Junggar Desert; road network; habitat
中文摘要:道路交通是社会和经济发展的枢纽,了解道路如何影响野生动物种群的连通性是道路生态学的挑战之一。小型哺乳动物作为检验环境影响的指示物种,对维持生态系统健康有重要作用。2020年7月10—17日,调查了新疆卡拉麦里山有蹄类野生动物自然保护区内国道216、县级道路和沙石道路3种不同类型道路对大沙鼠Rhombomys opimus分布(洞穴数量、洞群数量和洞群面积)的影响。研究发现,保护区内3种道路对大沙鼠分布的影响从大到小依次为国道216、县级道路和沙石道路。3种道路主要影响大沙鼠的洞群数量和洞群面积。洞群数量的峰值出现在国道216两侧800 m,远高于县级道路的100 m和沙石道路的10 m。国道216和县级道路两侧洞群面积峰值出现在800 m,洞群面积并未随距沙石道路距离而改变。路面基质而非车流量可能是3种道路对大沙鼠影响显著不同的主要原因。本研究可为保护区内道路管理提供重要的科学指导。
英文摘要:Road traffic is the hinge of social and economic development, and understanding how roads influence the connectivity of wildlife populations is one of the challenges in road ecology. Small mammals serve as indicators of environmental impacts and play a key role in ecosystems. During July 10-17, 2020, the effects of 3 different types of roads on the distribution of great gerbils (Rhombomys opimus), i.e. number of burrows, number of hole groups and area of hole groups, were investigated in the Kalamaili Mountain Ungulate Nature Reserve, Xinjiang Autonomous Region. The results showed that the national road No. 216 had the highest effect on the distribution of R. opimus, followed by the county road and the country side road. The 3 types of roads mainly influenced the number and area of hole groups. The number of hole groups peaked at 800 m on both sides of the national road No. 216, but only 100 m on the county roads, and 10 m on the country side roads. The peak area of hole groups on both sides of the national road No. 216 and the county road was 800 m, and the area of hole groups had no correlation with the distance from the country side road. The pavement substrate, instead of traffic volume, might be the main factor related to the significantly different effects of road types on R. opimus. The present study may provide important scientific guidance for road management in the nature reserves.
2021,40(1): 1-7 收稿日期:2020-08-17
分类号:Q958.11
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31700408;31872254)
作者简介:汪沐阳(1982-),副研究员,研究方向:保护生物学,E-mail:wangmuyang@ms.xjb.ac.cn
*通信作者:吉晟男,E-mail:jisn@craes.org.cn;杨维康,E-mail:yangwk@ms.xjb.ac.cn
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