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吉林莫莫格国家级自然保护区白鹤与豆雁迁徙期资源利用特征与生态位分化
Utilization Characteristics of Resources and Niche Differentiation of Grus leucogeranus and Anser fabalis During Migration Period in the Momoge National Nature Reserve, Jilin
李孪鑫, 潘鸿茹, 田晔, 雷泽锋, 邹红菲*
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DOI:10.11984/j.issn.1000-7083.20190412
作者单位:东北林业大学野生动物与自然保护地学院, 哈尔滨 150040
中文关键字:莫莫格国家级自然保护区;白鹤;豆雁;资源利用;生态位
英文关键字:Momoge National Nature Reserve; Grus leucogeranus; Anser fabalis; resource utilization; niche
中文摘要:为深入了解白鹤Grus leucogeranus与豆雁Anser fabalis种群之间的资源利用特征和生态位分化,2018年秋季和2019年春季在吉林莫莫格国家级自然保护区对迁徙期的白鹤和豆雁展开了研究。釆用固定路线寻查的样线法和定点观察法相结合的方法,对保护区内的白鹤与豆雁的生境利用状况进行了调查,通过计算两者的生境利用率、生态位宽度和生态位重叠,对其资源分配和生态位分化进行了研究。结果表明,迁徙期白鹤主要利用芦苇沼泽,豆雁主要利用芦苇沼泽和苔草沼泽;栖息环境:豆雁对苔草沼泽和明水面的利用率相对较高,而白鹤偏好草甸、芦苇沼泽以及农田,秋迁期生态位重叠值达到最大(0.654);离岸距离:白鹤主要选择了离岸0~50 m和50~100 m的环境,豆雁选择了离岸150~200 m和>200 m的环境,秋迁期生态位重叠值达到最大(0.612);觅食地类型:白鹤偏好芦苇滩、农田和泥地,而豆雁偏好苔草滩,春迁期生态位重叠值达到最大(0.595)。白鹤和豆雁的资源利用特征与生态位动态变化反映了迁徙期鸟类对生境变化的响应。两者通过选择不同的环境调节生态位宽度,减少生态位重叠,缓解种间资源分配,实现共存。
英文摘要:In order to understand the resource utilization characteristics and niche differentiation of Siberian crane (Grus leucogeranus) population and bean goose (Anser fabalis) population, G. leucogeranus and A. fabalis were studied during their migration periods in the Momoge National Nature Reserve (Jilin Province) in autumn (2018) and spring (2019). The habitat utilizations of G. leucogeranus and A. fabalis in the reserve were investigated by using the method of fixed route survey and fixed point observation. The resource utilization and niche differentiation were studied by calculating the habitat utilization rate, niche width, and niche overlap. The results showed that the main habitat used by G. leucogeranus during migration period was reed marsh, while those used by A. fabalis were reed marsh and sedge marsh. In term of the habitat environment, the utilization rate of sedge marsh and open water environment was relatively higher in A. fabalis population, while G. leucogeranus preferred meadow, reed marsh and farmland; the niche overlap value peaked in the autumn migration period, reaching 0.654. In term of the offshore distance, G. leucogeranus mainly chose the environments of 0-50 m and 50-100 m offshore, while A. fabalis chose the environments of 150-200 m offshore or larger than 200 m; the niche overlap value peaked in the autumn migration period, reaching 0.612. In term of the foraging space, G. leucogeranus preferred reed bank, farmland and mud land, while A. fabalis preferred sedge bank; the niche overlap value peaked in the spring migration period, reaching 0.595. In conclusion, the utilization characteristics of resources and dynamic change of the niche of G. leucogeranus and A. fabalis obviously reflected the response of birds to habitat change during migration period. The two waterfowl can coexist by selecting different environments to adjust the niche width, reduce the niche overlap and alleviate the resource allocation.
2020,39(4): 417-423 收稿日期:2019-12-02
分类号:Q959.7;Q958.1
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31770423;31470016)
作者简介:李孪鑫(1995-),男,硕士研究生,从事生物资源监测与保护研究,E-mail:475859451@qq.com
*通信作者:邹红菲,E-mail:hongfeizou@163.com
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