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3种城市生境间蚂蚁群落组成的比较研究——以四川省南充市城区为例
Comparison of Ant Community Composition Among Three Urban Habitats: a Case Study in Nanchong, Sichuan
罗昕裕, 周昭敏*
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DOI:10.11984/j.issn.1000-7083.20190070
作者单位:西华师范大学, 四川省环境科学与生物多样性保护重点实验室, 四川南充 637009
中文关键字:群落生态学;生物多样性;城市化;公园与绿地;乔木林地;旱地
英文关键字:community ecology; biodiversity; urbanization; garden and greenland; woodland; dry farm
中文摘要:作为重要的人为影响因素,城市化改变了自然生境的景观结构,并影响到动物群落的组成。蚁科Formicidae动物种类繁多,且易于捕获,是研究城市中不同土地利用类型对动物群落影响的理想指示生物。2018年5月,在四川省南充市城区中选择"公园与绿地""旱地"和"乔木林地"3种土地利用类型作为不同的生境类型,并通过陷阱法对蚂蚁群落组成进行调查。共采集到1 847只个体;其中,津岛铺道蚁Tetramorium tsushimae在"公园与绿地"中的个体数占比最高(73.80%),并明显高于"旱地"群落中占比最高的中华小家蚁Monomorium chinense(25.48%)和"乔木林地"群落中占比最高的宽结大头蚁Pheidole nodus(28.79%)。3种生境间,群落的蚂蚁个体数和物种丰富度间差异无统计学意义,但"公园与绿地"的Simpson多样性指数和Pielou均匀度指数均显著低于"旱地"和"乔木林地"的;"公园与绿地"(q=0.444)和"旱地"(q=0.500)与"乔木林地"间的群落组成均存在中度不相似,而"公园与绿地"与"旱地"间为中度相似(q=0.647)。因此,不同的城市土地利用类型能够改变蚂蚁群落的物种组成,而"公园与绿地"可能较"旱地""乔木林地"更有利于群落中优势种的形成。
英文摘要:As an important human-caused disturbance factor, urbanization has significantly changed the structure of natural habitats and influenced the composition of animal communities. The characterisitions of abundant population amount, high spcies diversity, and easy to be collected of ants make these species become excellent models for studying the effects of land-use types on the composition of animal communities in urban areas. In May 2018, ants were sampled from 3 land-use types (‘garden and greenland’, ‘dry farm’ and ‘woodland’) using pitfall traps in an urban area of Nanchong city, Sichuan province. A total of 1 847 ant individuals were collected. The proportion of Tetramorium tsushimae was the highest in ‘garden and greenland’(73.80%), and significantly higher than that of Monomorium chinense in ‘dry farm’(25.48%) and Pheidole nodus in ‘woodland’(28.79%). There was no significant difference in the number of indiviuduals and species richness among the 3 habitats, but the Simpson diversity index and Pielou evenness index of ant community in the habitat of ‘garden and greenland’ were significantly lower than those in the habitats of ‘dry farm’ and ‘woodland’; the composition of ant community in ‘woodland’ was moderately different from that in ‘garden and greenland’ (q=0.444) and ‘dry farm’ (q=0.500), and the community composition in ‘garden and greenland’ and ‘dry farm’ (q=0.647) was moderately similar. Therefore, the compositions of ant communities are varied in different land-use types in urban areas, and the habitat of ‘garden and greenland’ is more likely to facilitate the formation of dominant species than ‘dry farm’ and ‘woodland’.
2020,39(2): 148-155 收稿日期:2019-02-24
分类号:Q969.554.2;Q958.1
基金项目:西华师范大学英才科研基金项目(17YC365); 2018年国家级大学生创新创业训练计划项目(201810638010)
作者简介:罗昕裕(1998-),女,本科生,研究方向:群落生态学,E-mail:luo_xinyua@163.com
*通信作者:周昭敏,E-mail:zhouzm81@gmail.com
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