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澳门生态一区和二区水鸟谱系多样性的季节变化
Seasonal Dynamics of Waterbird Phylogenetic Diversity in Ecological ZoneⅠ and Ⅱ in Macao, China
丁志锋1*, 陈述2, 植诗雅3, 谭金庆2, 梁健超1, 冯永军1
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DOI:10.11984/j.issn.1000-7083.20190284
作者单位:1. 广东省生物资源应用研究所, 广东省动物保护与资源利用重点实验室, 广东省野生动物保护与利用公共实验室, 广州 510260;
2. 澳门特别行政区市政署园林绿化厅自然护理处, 澳门;
3. 澳门特别行政区市政署园林绿化厅自然保护研究处, 澳门
中文关键字:澳门;水鸟;谱系多样性;环境过滤
英文关键字:Macao; waterbird; phylogenetic diversity; environmental filtering
中文摘要:季节变化是鸟类群落的重要特征之一,其引起的环境变化决定着鸟类群落构建过程中不同驱动因子的作用力。因此,了解鸟类群落结构的季节变化,对于全面认识生物群落结构具有重要意义,尤其利用谱系多样性来探讨鸟类的季节性变化和推断群落聚集规律越来越受到关注。2018年1—12月,采用样线法对澳门生态一区和二区2块湿地进行逐月调查,记录水鸟的物种丰富度和多度,并分析水鸟谱系多样性的季节动态。结果显示,1)共记录水鸟37种,隶属于6目9科,目、科、种中数量最多的依次为:鸻形目Charadriiformes物种数为15种,鹭科Ardeidae物种数为11种,白鹭Egretta garzetta多度为540只。2)生态一区和二区水鸟的物种丰富度在冬季最高,其次为秋季;生态一区和二区的物种多度分别在秋季和冬季最高;谱系多样性和平均成对谱系距离的季节变化规律与物种丰富度的相似。3)生态一区和二区的鸟类群落分别在春、秋、冬季和秋季趋向于谱系发散,而在其他时间大多呈现出谱系聚集。谱系发散可能表明了种间竞争在群落构建中作用更大,而谱系聚集则表明了环境过滤对繁殖季水鸟群落构建具有重要作用。结果表明,湿地水鸟群落的驱动因子存在季节变化,考虑这些变化是全面认识群落结构的前提。
英文摘要:Seasonal dynamics are one of the most important characteristics of bird community. Environmental variability caused by seasonal changes influences the effects of various driving factors, and plays an essential role in structuring communities. Therefore, understanding the seasonal changes of bird community is of great importance for a complete perspective on the assembly process. We conducted a monthly waterbird survey in the Ecological Zone Ⅰ and Ⅱ in Macao, China from January to December, 2018, and the waterbird species richness and abundance were recorded by using the transect line method. Furthermore, the seasonal dynamics of waterbird phylogenetic diversity were estimated also. The results showed that: 1) a total of 37 waterbird species were recorded, and Charadriiformes and Ardeidae have the highest species richness (15 and 11 species, respectively). In addition, Egretta garzetta was the most abundant species (540 individuals). 2) The highest waterbird species richness of Ecological Zone Ⅰ and Ⅱ was found in winter, followed by autumn, while the highest species abundance was found in autumn and winter, respectively. The phylogenetic diversity and mean pairwise phylogenetic distance showed the similar pattern to species richness. 3) Phylogenetic over-dispersion occurred in spring, autumn and winter in Ecological Zone Ⅰ, and in autumn in Ecological Zone Ⅱ, and phylogenetic clustering occurred mostly in other seasons in Ecological Zone Ⅰ and Ⅱ. In general, phylogenetic over-dispersion might indicate that interspecific competition play an important role in structuring communities whereas clustering indicate that environmental filtering might contribute to waterbird assemblages. This findings suggest that seasonal dynamics in the assembly mechanisms structured waterbird communities, highlighting the necessity of considering these temporal shifts when obtaining a complete perspective on the assembly process.
2020,39(2): 130-138 收稿日期:2019-08-15
分类号:Q959.7
基金项目:广东省自然科学基金项目(2015A030313870);广东省林业科技创新项目(2018KJCX037);广东省科学院科技发展专项(2017GDASCX-0107; 2018GDASCX-0107);澳门特别行政区市政署园林绿化厅研究项目(PD.45/SZVJ/2018)
作者简介:丁志锋,男,博士,研究方向:鸟类生态学,E-mail:dingzhf@163.com
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