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三门峡湿地成幼大天鹅昼间越冬行为差异分析
Analysis on the Variation of Diurnal Wintering Behaviors of Adult and Juvenile Cygnus cygnus in the Sanmenxia Wetland
邓大军1,2#, 贾茹1#, 孟维悦1, 李淑红3, 茹文东4, 高如意4, 李云峰4, 吉志红5, 张国钢1*, 陆军1
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DOI:10.11984/j.issn.1000-7083.20190066
作者单位:1. 中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所, 全国鸟类环志中心, 国家林业和草原局生物多样性重点实验室, 北京 100091;
2. 河南省野生动物救护中心, 郑州 450044;
3. 北京动物园圈养野生动物技术北京市重点实验室, 北京 100044;
4. 河南省三门峡市国家城市湿地公园管理处, 河南三门峡 472000;
5. 河南省三门峡市气象局, 河南三门峡 472000
中文关键字:大天鹅;成鸟;幼鸟;越冬行为;三门峡湿地
英文关键字:Cygnus cygnus; adults; juveniles; wintering behavior; Sanmenxia Wetland
中文摘要:冬季幼鸟与成鸟面临着不同的生存压力,成鸟负责照顾幼鸟使其获得最大的生存率,这使得它们的行为选择不同。2016年12月—2017年3月,在河南省三门峡湿地,采用瞬时扫描法记录了成、幼大天鹅Cygnus cygnus的行为类型,并对越冬期成、幼大天鹅昼间行为选择的差异进行了分析。结果表明,在整个越冬期,成鸟占比最高的行为是警戒(29.1%),并高于幼鸟(18.5%);幼鸟占比最高的行为是运动(22.7%),并高于成鸟(18.2%)。对不同越冬阶段的行为差异分析表明,成鸟在越冬初期占比最高的行为是警戒(27.6%),幼鸟的是觅食(26.5%)。在越冬初期,幼鸟经过长时间的迁徙,急需补充能量,因此觅食行为占比最高,此时成鸟为保护幼鸟的安全,在警戒上的时间较其他行为更多;进入越冬中期,成、幼鸟的警戒行为均有所增加(成鸟:32.3%;幼鸟:20.8%),占比最高,此时湖面结冰,大天鹅受到天敌攻击的几率增加,因此成、幼鸟警戒行为均有所增加,且此时天然食物减少,成、幼鸟的觅食行为有所下降(成鸟:8.8%;幼鸟:13.5%),并增加了休息时间,以减少能量消耗来抵御严寒;到了越冬后期,成鸟的警戒行为(27.2%)仍是占比最高的行为,但与前期、中期相比,后期有所下降,幼鸟占比最高的行为是运动(26.3%),如飞行等,此时春季迁徙即将来临,幼鸟需要增加运动来锻炼飞行能力;成鸟此时也需积累能量,因此警戒行为与其他2个时期相比有所下降。在整个越冬阶段,成鸟警戒的比例都是最高的,表明成鸟始终以减少觅食和休息时间来保证幼鸟的安全作为首要任务。
英文摘要:Juvenile and adult birds face different survival pressures in winter. Adult birds will take care of juvenile birds to maximize their survival rate, resulting in different behavioral patterns in the population. From December 2016 to March 2017, the behavioral patterns of adult and juvenile whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) were recorded using instantaneous scanning method, and the differences of diurnal behavioral patterns of adult and juvenile C. cygnus in the Sanmenxia Wetland, Henan province were analyzed. The results showed that the highest proportion of adult behaviors during the whole wintering period was alarming (29.1%), while the locomotion behavior accounted the highest proportion in juvenile (22.7%). In the early wintering periods, the highest proportion of adults behaviors was alarming (27.6%), while juveniles showed the highest proportion of foraging (26.5%). Juveniles experienced autumn migration before reaching the wintering ground, thus they spent more time on foraging to accumulate energy, and adults spent more time to protect their offsprings. In the middle wintering periods with ice covering on the lake, the alarming behaviors of both adults (32.3%) and juveniles (20.8%) increased and accounted the highest proportion. This behavioral change might be due to the increased opportunity of swans being attacked by natural enemies such as wild dogs, and meanwhile increased resting in flocks would contribute to keeping warm. In the late wintering periods, the highest proportion of adult behaviors was also alarming (27.2%), and the highest proportion of juveniles' was locomotion (26.3%), such as flying. With the approach of spring migration, juveniles would take more exercise to improve their flight ability, while the adults decreased the alarming behavior compared with early and middle wintering periods for energy accumulation. The alarming behavior of adults was the highest proportion throughout the wintering period to ensure the safety of juveniles.
2019,38(5): 531-536 收稿日期:2019-02-19
分类号:Q959.7;Q958.1
基金项目:国家林业和草原局《野生动物疫病监测和预警系统维护》项目
作者简介:邓大军(1977-),男,高级工程师,主要从事野生动植物保护与利用研究;贾茹(1995-),女,硕士研究生,主要从事动物生态学研究,E-mail:2353120380@qq.com
*通信作者:张国钢,E-mail:zm7672@126.com
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