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京新高速公路(临白段)野生动物通道监测研究
Monitoring of Wildlife Crossing Structures Along Beijing-Xinjiang Expressway (Linbai Section)
李灵贝1,2, 王云2*, 关磊2, 朱广河3, 李娜3, 孔亚平2, 朱洪强1*
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DOI:10.11984/j.issn.1000-7083.20180237
作者单位:1. 吉林农业大学, 长春 130118;
2. 交通运输部科学研究院, 北京 100029;
3. 内蒙古自治区交通建设工程质量监督局, 呼和浩特 010020
中文关键字:保护区;桥梁;涵洞;红外相机技术;道路生态学
英文关键字:reserve; bridge; culvert; infrared camera technology; road ecology
中文摘要:京新高速公路(临白段)穿越和毗邻3个保护区,为此设置了多处野生动物通道,但其利用效果还缺乏跟踪监测。2016年11月—2017年10月,采用红外相机技术对18处野生动物通道开展监测。结果表明:1)至少5种兽类和14种鸟类利用通道,包括国家Ⅱ级重点保护野生动物野猫Felis silvestris和兔狲Otocolobus manul;2)从相对丰富度指数看,兽类中,赤狐Vulpes vulpes(119.94)最高,蒙古兔Lepus tolai为53.31,野猫及兔狲均为26.73,猪獾Arctonyx collaris(5.25)最低;鸟类中,喜鹊Pica pica(140.30)最高,其次为石鸡Alectoris chukar(95.57),其他12种鸟类为148.04;赤狐利用了绝大多数的通道,穿越了10座桥梁中的8座,8个涵洞中的6个;赤狐、蒙古兔、野猫和兔狲对桥梁利用率高于涵洞,从兽类和鸟类总体利用率看,桥梁优于涵洞;3)通道尺寸是鸟兽利用通道的主要影响因素,水体和植被覆盖也对野生动物利用通道起重要引导作用。因此,建议未来在我国干旱半干旱区公路建设中尽量将大型、开阔的通道纳入设计中,在通道出入口营造永久或季节性水体以及类型丰富和覆盖度高的植被景观以诱导野生动物利用通道。
英文摘要:The Beijing-Xinjiang Expressway (Linbai Section) traverses and adjacent to 3 reserves, and many wildlife crossing structures have been set up to mitigate the barrier effect, however, their utilization effects still remain unclear. From November 2016 to October 2017, 18 wildlife crossing structures were monitored using infrared camera technology. The results showed that: 1) At least 5 species of mammals and 14 species of birds were active using wildlife crossing structures, including the class Ⅱ nationally protected species wildcat (Felis silvestris) and Pallas' cat (Otocolobus manul); 2) Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) had a maximum relative abundance index (RAI) of 119.94, followed by Tolai hare (Lepus tolai) (RAI=53.31), wildcat and Pallas' cat (RAI=26.73), and hog badger (Arctonyx collaris) (RAI=5.25); among birds, black-billed magpie (Pica pica) had a RAI of 140.30, followed by chukar (Alectoris chukar) (RAI=95.57), and 12 other bird species (RAI=148.04); red fox crossed 8 of 10 bridges and 6 of 8 culverts, indicating the adaptation of red fox to the bridges and culverts; the utilization rates of bridges for red fox, Tolai hare, wildcat and Pallas' cat were higher than those of culverts. Therefore, bridges might be superior to culverts according to the overall utilization rate of mammals and birds; 3) Structure size was found to be the main factor influencing the crossing structures of birds and mammals. Water and vegetation also played an important role in guiding the movement of wildlife. This study suggested that future road design schemes including large and open crossing structures with permanent or temporal water and rich vegetation types might benefit the utilization of crossing structures by wildlife along the Beijing-Xinjiang Expressway.
2019,38(1): 92-98 收稿日期:2018-08-10
分类号:X835;U418.9
基金项目:内蒙古自治区科技创新引导项目"内蒙古G7高速公路(临白段)野生动物通道监测及效果评价研究"(2016-106575);交通运输部科技示范工程"生态脆弱区公路路域生态环保科技示范工程"(2016002)
作者简介:李灵贝(1993—),女,硕士研究生,主要从事野生动物生态学研究,E-mail:377239365@qq.com
*通信作者:王云,E-mail:wangyun80314@163.com;朱洪强,E-mail:634046898@qq.com
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